Why There is Only One God: One Divine Nature

Scripture is clear in teaching that the one God is the person of the Father in particular, as can be observed as explicitly taught in the following passages:

“There is one body and one Spirit, just as also you were called in one hope of your calling; 5 one Lord, one faith, one baptism, 6 one God and Father of all who is over all and through all and in all.” (Ephesians 4:4-5 NAS)

“This is eternal life, that they may know You, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom You have sent.” (John 17:3 NAS)

“yet for us there is but one God, the Father, from whom are all things and we exist for Him; and one Lord, Jesus Christ, by whom are all things, and we exist through Him.” (1 Corinthians 8:6 NAS)

Yet scripture is also clear in teaching that the one God has a Son, and His Holy Spirit, who are each distinct persons from the Father, and each of the same divine nature as He. This easily raises the question, ‘how can the Son and Holy Spirit both be God, having the same divinity as the Father, Who is the one God, without constituting second and third Gods?’

The answer to this question is multifaceted: the Father is the one God because He alone is the Supreme Cause, or uncaused Cause, and He alone is the Supreme Authority, or Head without a head, as we have observed in the last two installments of this series. Additionally, we may point to the unity of the Son and Spirit with the Father in respect to both their divine nature and their relationship to Him as reasons why They cannot be said to constitute second and third Gods. In this installment, we will examine how the unity of the divine nature does not allow the Son and Spirit to constitute second and third Gods.

Firstly, let us observe that the unity of the divine nature is not the cause of there being only one God- rather, it is a result of it; as such, if there were a plurality of divine natures, it would create a plurality of Gods due to their know being multiple species of divinity. So when we bring up the unity of the divine nature in defending the unity of God, we aren’t saying that there is only one God because there is only one divine nature, but rather that the Son and Spirit’s divinity cannot infringe upon the unity of God because They are not of different divine natures than the Father, but have the Father’s own divine nature.

If we were to argue, as some have tried to, that the sole or primary reason that there is only one God because there is only one divine nature, one might easily reply that in the case of men there is but one human nature common to many men, yet there are many men, not one man, because there are many human persons; so also, such a person could argue, simply having three divine persons all share a common divine nature does not make Them constitute one God, but three Gods. This line of argumentation is valid, if all we can point to in order to assert that there is one God is that the Father, Son, and Spirit share a common divinity as any three individuals in creation may share a common species.

But as we have observed in the last two installments of this series, the scriptures do not teach that there is only one God because there is only one divine nature, but because the Father, Who alone is the Supreme Cause of all and Supreme Authority over all, is one. Thus there is only one God, although there are three divine persons, because there is one Supreme Cause and Authority, the person of the Father. This, we observed, is why scripture styles God the Father in particular the “one God”, even while teaching the divinity of the persons of the Son and Holy Spirit.

And yet, it is important to note that the divinity of the Son and Spirit is identical to that of the Father; there are not three different divine natures, but one divine nature. Thus no one can charge Christians with tritheism on account of the Son or Spirit introducing a second or third divinity; rather, as the Son and Spirit are from the Father as Their Origin and Source by eternal generation and procession, They have communicated to Them in an ineffable way the divine nature of the only true God, the Father.

Thus scripture ascribes to the Son all the same divine attributes it ascribes to the Father, excepting fatherhood, and Supreme Headship, and being unoriginate, since those attributes of the Father are incommunicable. Similarly, we see the scriptures ascribe divine attributes to the Holy Spirit. Scripture also outright calls the Son “God” in John 1:1, which may rightly be viewed as referring to the Son’s divinity. Colossians 2:9 also tells us that Christ has the “fullness of deity”. The many references to and implications of the Son and Spirit’s divinity in scripture are themselves enough to prove that Their divinity is the same as that of the Father simply by way of necessary logical deduction from the fact that while the Son and Spirit are divine, They do not constitute second and third Gods, for there is only one God, the Father. In order for the Son and Spirit to not constitute second and third Gods They must have exactly the same divine nature as the Father, or else, as we mentioned above, a plurality of Gods would be introduced by way of a plurality of divine natures.

But we can also see the Son and Spirit’s exactly identical divinity from scripture’s teaching that the Son is begotten of the Father, and that the Spirit proceeds from Him as His Spirit. It is impious to think that the very Spirit of God would be anything other than divine, of the same divine nature as the one true God whose Holy Spirit He is. Likewise, it is absurd to suggest that God did not beget a Son who is of the same divine nature as He. God’s eternal fatherhood of His only-begotten Son is the very pattern off of which all human and created fatherhood is modeled. And in human fatherhood, a man’s son is always of the same nature as the father who begat him. So it is with all animals, that each begets after its own kind, there being an exact identicality of nature between the one begotten and the begetter. Thus every human son has the humanity of His Father. So also, the Lord Jesus Christ, the being the only begotten Son of the only true God, has the divinity of His Father, being of one and the same divine nature with the one true God Who begat Him before the ages. For a more detailed demonstration of eternal generation from the holy scriptures, see Eternal Generation Proved from the Scriptures.

Thus we see that the Son and Spirit, being of the same divine nature as the Father Whose Son and Spirit They are, do not create a plurality of Gods on account of a plurality of divine natures; but of one God, the Father, are one only-begotten Son and one Holy Spirit, who have the very same divine nature as the one God Whose Son and Spirit They are.

In addition to the proofs cited from scripture, we may bring to bear the testimony of many church fathers; not that the testimony of any man or council is sufficient to prove any point of doctrine true, but these are witnesses to which the truths which are known with certainty from the scriptures alone:

Novatian of Rome

“For all things being subjected to Him as the Son by the Father, while He Himself, with those things which are subjected to Him, is subjected to His Father, He is indeed proved to be Son of His Father; but He is found to be both Lord and God of all else. Whence, while all things put under Him are delivered to Him who is God, and all things are subjected to Him, the Son refers all that He has received to the Father, remits again to the Father the whole authority of His divinity. The true and eternal Father is manifested as the one God, from whom alone this power of divinity is sent forth, and also given and directed upon the Son, and is again returned by the communion of substance to the Father. God indeed is shown as the Son, to whom the divinity is beheld to be given and extended. And still, nevertheless, the Father is proved to be one God; while by degrees in reciprocal transfer that majesty and divinity are again returned and reflected as sent by the Son Himself to the Father, who had given them; so that reasonably God the Father is God of all, and the source also of His Son Himself whom He begot as Lord. Moreover, the Son is God of all else, because God the Father put before all Him whom He begot. Thus the Mediator of God and men, Christ Jesus, having the power of every creature subjected to Him by His own Father, inasmuch as He is God; with every creature subdued to Him, found at one with His Father God, has, by abiding in that condition that He moreover was heard, briefly proved God His Father to be one and only and true God.” (On the Trinity, Chapter 31)

Eusebius

“The children of the Jews first received the confession of the one God in opposition to the polytheistic error of the Greeks. But the saving grace of recognizing that the same [God] is also Father of an only-begotten Son has been given to the Church as a special privilege. For as Son it knows Jesus Christ alone and no other, not according to generation of the flesh that he assumed (for it has been taught to call this flesh the “form of a slave” and “Son of Man”), but according to his [generation] before all ages from God himself and the Father, [which is] unknowable to all. According to this [generation from God] the fullness of the paternal divinity also made him, the Son, God, and so as a result he possesses a divinity that is not his own, [not] one separated from that of the Father, nor one that is without source and that is unbegotten, nor one that is foreign, from somewhere else, and different from the Father’s. Rather, he is filled with divinity by participating in the paternal [divinity] itself, which pours into him as from a fountain. For the great Apostle taught that “in him alone dwells the fulness” of the paternal “divinity.” For this reason then, one God is proclaimed by the Church of God, “and there is no other beside him,” but also one only-begotten Son of God, the image of the paternal divinity, who, because of this, is God.” (On Ecclesiastical Theology, Book I, Ch 2)

Athanasius

“Accordingly when the Father is called the only God, and we read that there is one God, and ‘I am,’ and ‘beside Me there is no God,’ and ‘I the first and I the last,’ this has a fit meaning. For God is One and Only and First; but this is not said to the denial of the Son, perish the thought; for He is in that One, and First and Only, as being of that One and Only and First the Only Word and Wisdom and Radiance. And He too is the First, as the Fulness of the Godhead of the First and Only, being whole and full God.” (Against the Arians, Discourse III.)

“For, as the illustration shows, we do not introduce three Origins or three Fathers, as the followers of Marcion and Manichæus; since we have not suggested the image of three suns, but sun and radiance. And one is the light from the sun in the radiance; and so we know of but one origin; and the All-framing Word we profess to have no other manner of godhead, than that of the Only God, because He is born from Him.” (Against the Arians, Discourse III.)

“For there is but one form of Godhead, which is also in the Word; and one God, the Father, existing by Himself according as He is above all, and appearing in the Son according as He pervades all things, and in the Spirit according as in Him He acts in all things through the Word.” (Against the Arians, Discourse III.)

“The Triad, then, although the Word took a body from Mary, is a Triad, being inaccessible to addition or diminution; but it is always perfect, and in the Triad one Godhead is recognised, and so in the Church one God is preached, the Father of the Word.” (To Epictetus)

Hilary of Poitiers

“And if any one hearing that the Only-begotten Son is like the invisible God, denies that the Son who is the image of the invisible God (whose image is understood to include essence) is Son in essence, as though denying His true Sonship: let him be anathema.

15. It is here insisted that the nature is indistinguishable and entirely similar. For since He is the Only-begotten Son of God and the image of the invisible God, it is necessary that He should be of an essence similar in species and nature. Or what distinction can be made between Father and Son affecting their nature with its similar genus, when the Son subsisting through the nature begotten in Him is invested with the properties of the Father, viz., glory, worth, power, invisibility, essence? And while these prerogatives of divinity are equal we neither understand the one to be less because He is Son, nor the other to be greater because He is Father; since the Son is the image of the Father in species, and not dissimilar in genus; since the similarity of a Son begotten of the substance of His Father does not admit of any diversity of substance, and the Son and image of the invisible God embraces in Himself the whole form of His Father’s divinity both in kind and in amount: and this is to be truly Son, to reflect the truth of the Father’s form by the perfect likeness of the nature imaged in Himself.” (De Synodis)

“VIII. And if any one understanding that the Son is like in essence to Him whose Son He is admitted to be, says that the Son is the same as the Father, or part of the Father, or that it is through an emanation or any such passion as is necessary for the procreation of corporeal children that the incorporeal Son draws His life from the incorporeal Father: let him be anathema.

21. We have always to beware of the vices of particular perversions, and countenance no opportunity for delusion. For many heretics say that the Son is like the Father in divinity in order to support the theory that in virtue of this similarity the Son is the same Person as the Father: for this undivided similarity appears to countenance a belief in a single monad. For what does not differ in kind seems to retain identity of nature.

22. But birth does not countenance this vain imagination; for such identity without differentiation excludes birth. For what is born has a father who caused its birth. Nor because the divinity of Him who is being born is inseparable from that of Him who begets, are the Begetter and the Begotten the same Person; while on the other hand He who is born and He who begets cannot be unlike.” (De Synodis)

Cyril of Jerusalem

“We believe then In the Only-Begotten Son of God, Who Was Begotten of the Father Very God. For the True God begets not a false god, as we have said, nor did He deliberate and afterwards beget ; but He begot eternally, and much more swiftly than our words or thoughts: for we speaking in time, consume time; but in the case of the Divine Power, the generation is timeless. And as I have often said, He did not bring forth the Son from non-existence into being, nor take the non-existent into sonship : but the Father, being Eternal, eternally and ineffably begot One Only Son, who has no brother. Nor are there two first principles; but the Father is the head of the Son 1 Corinthians 11:3; the beginning is One. For the Father begot the Son Very God, called Emmanuel; and Emmanuel being interpreted is, God with us Matthew 1:23 .” (Catechetical Lecture 11)

“For the Father being Very God begot the Son like Himself, Very God…” (Catechetical Lecture 11)

Justin Martyr

“I shall give you another testimony, my friends, from the Scriptures, that God begot before all creatures a Beginning, [who was] a certain rational power [proceeding] from Himself, who is called by the Holy Spirit, now the Glory of the Lord, now the Son, again Wisdom, again an Angel, then God, and then Lord and Logos; and on another occasion He calls Himself Captain, when He appeared in human form to Joshua the son of Nave (Nun). For He can be called by all those names, since He ministers to the Father’s will, and since He was begotten of the Father by an act of will; just as we see happening among ourselves: for when we give out some word, we beget the word; yet not by abscission, so as to lessen the word [which remains] in us, when we give it out: and just as we see also happening in the case of a fire, which is not lessened when it has kindled [another], but remains the same; and that which has been kindled by it likewise appears to exist by itself, not diminishing that from which it was kindled [It must be noted that in the examples he gives, Justin assumes the identicality of the nature of the Word to the Father in respect to His divinity, as a word expressed is in essence identical to the internal idea expressed, and one fire kindled of another is of no other nature than the fire from which it is kindled. So also, the Son begotten of the Father is of no other nature than that of the Father Himself, having the same divine nature as He.]. The Word of Wisdom, who is Himself this God begotten of the Father of all things, and Word, and Wisdom, and Power, and the Glory of the Begetter, will bear evidence to me, when He speaks by Solomon the following…” (Dialogue With Trypho, Chapter 61)

“And that this power which the prophetic word calls God, as has been also amply demonstrated, and Angel, is not numbered [as different] in name only like the light of the sun but is indeed something numerically distinct, I have discussed briefly in what has gone before; when I asserted that this power was begotten from the Father, by His power and will, but not by abscission, as if the essence of the Father were divided; as all other things partitioned and divided are not the same after as before they were divided: and, for the sake of example, I took the case of fires kindled from a fire, which we see to be distinct from it, and yet that from which many can be kindled is by no means made less, but remains the same.” (Dialogue With Trypho, Chapter 128)

 

Quotes from Eusebius taken from: Eusebius Pamphilius, On Ecclesiastical Theology, trans. Kelly McCarthy Sproerl and Markus Vinzent (Washington, D.C.: The Catholic University of America Press, 2017).

 

Why There is Only One God: Headship

In this series we have been examining the reasons why there is only one God, in light of the fact that the persons of the Son and Holy Spirit share the Father’s divine nature. Since there are three persons Who all have the same divine nature, how are there not three Gods?

We begin answering this by noting that scripture is clear on the point that there is only one God, and that it is equally clear that this one God is the person of the Father in particular. This is seen explicitly from scripture:

“There is one body and one Spirit, just as also you were called in one hope of your calling; 5 one Lord, one faith, one baptism, 6 one God and Father of all who is over all and through all and in all.” (Ephesians 4:4-5 NAS)

“This is eternal life, that they may know You, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom You have sent.” (John 17:3 NAS)

“yet for us there is but one God, the Father, from whom are all things and we exist for Him; and one Lord, Jesus Christ, by whom are all things, and we exist through Him.” (1 Corinthians 8:6 NAS)

But even once it is understood that the Father is the one God of the Christian faith, the question still remains, why do the persons of the Son and Holy Spirit, since They share the same divine nature as the Father, not constitute second and third Gods?

In our last installment of this series, we examined the first part of the answer to this question, namely, that the Father is the one and only God because the Father alone is the uncaused Cause of all. The Father through the Son and Spirit created all things; but even the Son and Holy Spirit, we observed, have the Father as their atemporal origin and source, the Son being of the Father by eternal generation, and the Holy Spirit being of the Father by eternal procession. This means that the Father alone is entirely uncaused and unoriginate; no greater source or reason for His being can be pointed to than Himself. He simply is always all that He is, uncaused, unbegotten.

Since then, there is only one uncaused Cause, and this is the Father, we see why scripture styles God the Father in particular the one God, and why, since the Son and Holy Spirit are not also uncaused, they do not constitute second and third Gods.

Today we examine a second part of the answer to our question, related to the last, that just as the Father alone is the “one God” because He alone is the uncaused Cause of all, so also the Father alone is the Supreme Authority, the Head without a head, meaning, that He is the authoritative head over all, even over His own Son and Spirit, and there is none who has headship over Him; there is no higher authority than the one God, the Father.

We see God’s headship over His Son and Spirit in the following passages:

“But I want you to know that the head of every man is Christ, the head of woman is man, and the head of Christ is God.” (1 Corinthians 11:3 NKJV)

15 So the Lord sent a pestilence upon Israel from the morning until the appointed time, and seventy thousand men of the people from Dan to Beersheba died. 16 When the angel stretched out his hand toward Jerusalem to destroy it, the Lord relented from the calamity and said to the angel who destroyed the people, “It is enough! Now relax your hand!” And the angel of the Lord was by the threshing floor of Araunah the Jebusite. – 2Samuel 24:15-16 (NASB)

“Do you not believe that I am in the Father, and the Father in Me? The words that I speak to you I do not speak on My own authority; but the Father who dwells in Me does the works.” (John 14:10 NKJV)

“And I will pray the Father, and He will give you another Helper, that He may abide with you forever— 17 the Spirit of truth, whom the world cannot receive, because it neither sees Him nor knows Him; but you know Him, for He dwells with you and will be in you.” (John 14:16-17 NKJV)

“But the Helper, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in My name, He will teach you all things, and bring to your remembrance all things that I said to you.” (John 14:26 NKJV)

In these passages we see that there is no higher authority over God the Father, and that He is Supreme:

“For when God made a promise to Abraham, because He could swear by no one greater, He swore by Himself, 14 saying, “Surely blessing I will bless you, and multiplying I will multiply you.” 15 And so, after he had patiently endured, he obtained the promise. 16 For men indeed swear by the greater, and an oath for confirmation is for them an end of all dispute.” (Hebrews 6:13-18 NKJV)

“Then comes the end, when He delivers the kingdom to God the Father, when He puts an end to all rule and all authority and power. 25 For He must reign till He has put all enemies under His feet. 26 The last enemy that will be destroyed is death. 27 For “He has put all things under His feet.” But when He says “all things are put under Him,” it is evident that He who put all things under Him is excepted. 28 Now when all things are made subject to Him, then the Son Himself will also be subject to Him who put all things under Him, that God may be all in all.” (1 Corinthians 15:24-28 NKJV)

From these passages we see that the Son and Spirit are subordinate to the Father as Their Head, and that the Father has headship over not only all creation, but also over His Son and Spirit. We also see that the Father Himself is the greatest authority, having no higher authority above Him; the Father alone is the Supreme Authority. On this account then, as well as the fact that the Father alone is the uncaused Cause of all, scripture styles the person of the Father the “one God”. And since the Son and Holy Spirit do not also have absolute supreme authority equal with the Father, They do not constitute second and third Gods, but the Father alone being the Supreme Authority over all is the one God.

Having seen this shown from scripture, let us now examine the testimonies of some of the ancient fathers of the church on this same point:

Novation of Rome

“Moreover, the Son does nothing of His own will, nor does anything of His own determination; nor does He come from Himself, but obeys all His Father’s commands and precepts; so that, although birth proves Him to be a Son, yet obedience even to death declares Him the minister of the will of His Father, of whom He is. Thus making Himself obedient to His Father in all things, although He also is God, yet He shows the one God the Father by His obedience, from whom also He drew His beginning.” (On the Trinity, Chapter 31)

“For all things being subjected to Him as the Son by the Father, while He Himself, with those things which are subjected to Him, is subjected to His Father, He is indeed proved to be Son of His Father; but He is found to be both Lord and God of all else. Whence, while all things put under Him are delivered to Him who is God, and all things are subjected to Him, the Son refers all that He has received to the Father, remits again to the Father the whole authority of His divinity. The true and eternal Father is manifested as the one God, from whom alone this power of divinity is sent forth, and also given and directed upon the Son, and is again returned by the communion of substance to the Father. God indeed is shown as the Son, to whom the divinity is beheld to be given and extended. And still, nevertheless, the Father is proved to be one God; while by degrees in reciprocal transfer that majesty and divinity are again returned and reflected as sent by the Son Himself to the Father, who had given them; so that reasonably God the Father is God of all, and the source also of His Son Himself whom He begot as Lord. Moreover, the Son is God of all else, because God the Father put before all Him whom He begot. Thus the Mediator of God and men, Christ Jesus, having the power of every creature subjected to Him by His own Father, inasmuch as He is God; with every creature subdued to Him, found at one with His Father God, has, by abiding in that condition that He moreover was heard, briefly proved God His Father to be one and only and true God.” (On the Trinity, Chapter 31)

Eusebius Pamphili

“But are you afraid, man, lest, having confessed that there are two hypostases, you introduce two sources and cast aside the monarchical divinity? Well then, learn that because there is one God who is without source and unbegotten, but the Son has been begotten from him, there will be one source and a single monarchy and kingship, since even the Son himself acknowledges his Father as source. “The head of Christ is God,” according to the Apostle. But are you anxious that one might have to accept that there are two gods if you confess that there are two hypostases of Father and Son? But know this too: that the man who grants that there are two hypostases of Father and Son is not compelled to say there are two Fathers, nor that there are two Sons, but will grant that one is the Father and the other is the Son. Thus, in the same way, it is not necessary for the man who posits two hypostases to grant that there are two gods. For we neither deem them equally worthy of honor, nor both without source and unbegotten, but deem the one [hypostasis] as unbegotten  and without source, while [we deem] the other as begotten and having the Father as his source. For this reason, even the Son himself teaches that his Father is also his God, when he says, “I go to my Father and to your Father and to my God and to your God.” Thus God is shown to be both Father and God of the Son himself. For this reason then, the God of the Son is proclaimed by the Church to be one. And the Son, when he is compared to the Father, will not also be God of the Father himself, but only-begotten Son, his “beloved,” “image of the invisible God,” and “radiance” of the paternal glory; and he reveres, worships, and glorifies his own Father, acknowledging him as God even of himself, to whom he has been reported also to pray, to whom he gives thanks, and to whom he also became “obedient unto death.” And he confesses that he lives “because of the Father” and is able to do nothing without the Father and that he does not do his own will but the will of the Father. Indeed, he explicitly says, “I have come down from heaven not to do my own will but the will of him who sent me.”” (On Ecclesiastical Theology, Book 2, Ch 7)

The Macrostich

“Believing then in the All-perfect Triad, the most Holy, that is, in the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Ghost, and calling the Father God, and the Son God, yet we confess in them, not two Gods, but one dignity of Godhead, and one exact harmony of dominion, the Father alone being Head over the whole universe wholly, and over the Son Himself, and the Son subordinated to the Father; but, excepting Him, ruling over all things after Him which through Himself have come to be, and granting the grace of the Holy Ghost unsparingly to the saints at the Father’s will. For that such is the account of the Divine Monarchy towards Christ, the sacred oracles have delivered to us.”

Hilary of Poitiers

“XVII. If any man says that the Lord and the Lord, the Father and the Son, are two Gods because of the aforesaid words: let him be anathema. For we do not make the Son the equal or peer of the Father, but understand the Son to be subject. For He did not come down to Sodom without the Father’s will, nor rain from Himself but from the Lord, to wit, by the Father’s authority; nor does He sit at the Father’s right hand by His own authority, but because He hears the Father saying, Sit on My right hand.

51. The foregoing and the following statements utterly remove any ground for suspecting that this definition asserts a diversity of different deities in the Lord and the Lord. No comparison is made because it was seen to be impious to say that there are two Gods: not that they refrain from making the Son equal and peer of the Father in order to deny that He is God. For, since he is anathema who denies that Christ is God, it is not on that score that it is profane to speak of two equal Gods. God is One on account of the true character of His natural essence and because from the Unborn God the Father, who is the one God, the Only-begotten God the Son is born, and draws His divine Being only from God; and since the essence of Him who is begotten is exactly similar to the essence of Him who begot Him, there must be one name for the exactly similar nature. That the Son is not on a level with the Father and is not equal to Him is chiefly shown in the fact that He was subjected to Him to render obedience, in that the Lord rained from the Lord and that the Father did not, as Photinus and Sabellius say, rain from Himself, as the Lord from the Lord; in that He then sat down at the right hand of God when it was told Him to seat Himself; in that He is sent, in that He receives, in that He submits in all things to the will of Him who sent Him. But the subordination of filial love is not a diminution of essence, nor does pious duty cause a degeneration of nature, since in spite of the fact that both the Unborn Father is God and the Only-begotten Son of God is God, God is nevertheless One, and the subjection and dignity of the Son are both taught in that by being called Son He is made subject to that name which because it implies that God is His Father is yet a name which denotes His nature. Having a name which belongs to Him whose Son He is, He is subject to the Father both in service and name; yet in such a way that the subordination of His name bears witness to the true character of His natural and exactly similar essence.” (De Synodis, Quoting and commenting on the decision of the Council of Sirmium against Photinius)

Justin Martyr

“And now have you not perceived, my friends, that one of the three, who is both God and Lord, and ministers to Him who is in the heavens, is Lord of the two angels? For when [the angels] proceeded to Sodom, He remained behind, and communed with Abraham in the words recorded by Moses; and when He departed after the conversation, Abraham went back to his place. And when he came [to Sodom], the two angels no longer conversed with Lot, but Himself, as the Scripture makes evident; and He is the Lord who received commission from the Lord who [remains] in the heavens, i.e., the Maker of all things, to inflict upon Sodom and Gomorrha the [judgments] which the Scripture describes in these terms: ‘The Lord rained down upon Sodom and Gomorrha sulphur and fire from the Lord out of heaven.”” (Dialogue With Trypho, Chapter 56)

“It is again written by Moses, my brethren, that He who is called God and appeared to the patriarchs is called both Angel and Lord, in order that from this you may understand Him to be minister to the Father of all things, as you have already admitted, and may remain firm, persuaded by additional arguments.” (Dialogue With Trypho, Chapter 58)

“I shall give you another testimony, my friends, from the Scriptures, that God begot before all creatures a Beginning, [who was] a certain rational power [proceeding] from Himself, who is called by the Holy Spirit, now the Glory of the Lord, now the Son, again Wisdom, again an Angel, then God, and then Lord and Logos; and on another occasion He calls Himself Captain, when He appeared in human form to Joshua the son of Nave (Nun). For He can be called by all those names, since He ministers to the Father’s will…” (Dialogue With Trypho, Chapter 61)

 

 

Quotes from Eusebius taken from: Eusebius Pamphilius, On Ecclesiastical Theology, trans. Kelly McCarthy Sproerl and Markus Vinzent (Washington, D.C.: The Catholic University of America Press, 2017).

Why There is Only One God: One Supreme Cause

Scripture is explicit in equating the one God with the person of the Father:

“There is one body and one Spirit, just as also you were called in one hope of your calling; 5 one Lord, one faith, one baptism, 6 one God and Father of all who is over all and through all and in all.” Ephesians 4:4-5 NAS

“This is eternal life, that they may know You, the only true God, and Jesus Christ whom You have sent.” John 17:3 NAS

“yet for us there is but one God, the Father, from whom are all things and we exist for Him; and one Lord, Jesus Christ, by whom are all things, and we exist through Him.” 1 Corinthians 8:6 NAS

We have examined the identity of the one God as the person of the Father in some depth here. We can also see that this was the clear teaching of the orthodox church fathers of the ante-nicene and nicene eras, as can be seen here.

In this article we continue our series on ‘Why There is Only One God’. The question of how there is only one God comes to mind in light of the fact that while the Father is the one God, the Son and Spirit are also of the same divine nature as the Father. There are then three persons who are God, that is, Who possess the same divine nature; yet there are not three Gods, but only one, the person of the Father.

In light of this, why do the Son and Holy Spirit not constitute second and third Gods in addition to the Father, Who alone is the one God? The answer to this question is multifaceted. The person of the Father alone is the one God because He alone is the ‘uncaused Cause’ and ‘Head without a head’. Additionally, we may point to the unity of the Son and Spirit with the Father in respect to both their divine nature and their relationship to Him as reasons why They cannot be said to constitute second and third Gods. In this article, we will examine the first part of the answer given, that the Father alone is the uncaused Cause.

Firstly, what is meant by ‘uncaused Cause’? When we say that the one God alone is the uncaused Cause, we refer to the fact that He alone is without cause, origin, or source, while He Himself is the Cause, Source, and Origin of all else that exists. The one God is not only the cause and source of all creation, but also of His own Son by eternal generation and of His Holy Spirit by eternal procession. Being an ‘uncaused Cause’ then is unique to the person of the Father.

Another way to put this is that the Father alone is the First Cause of all. But by ‘First Cause’ we do not mean that the Father is in any way chronologically anterior to His Son and Spirit, but rather that He is logically first in that He is the Supreme Cause of all, to Whom everything that exists may be traced as its Source, including the Son and Holy Spirit through Whom God created all creation.

In showing this doctrine from scripture, let us begin by showing that God is the source of His Son and Holy Spirit, and after this that He Himself is entirely uncaused.

We see the Father demonstrated to be the Cause of the Son in the following passages of scripture:

“For God so loved the world that He gave His only begotten Son, that whoever believes in Him should not perish but have everlasting life.” (John 3:16 NKJV)

“And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father,) full of grace and truth.” (John 1:14 KJV)

“No man hath seen God at any time, the only begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him.” (John 1:18 KJV)

“Whosoever believes that Jesus is the Christ is born of God: and every one that loves Him that begat loves Him also that is begotten of Him.” (1 John 5:21)

“The Lord possessed me in the beginning of his way, before his works of old. 23 I was set up from everlasting, from the beginning, or ever the earth was. 24 When there were no depths, I was brought forth; when there were no fountains abounding with water. 25 Before the mountains were settled, before the hills was I brought forth:” (Proverbs 8:22-25 KJV)

“For as the Father hath life in himself; so hath he given to the Son to have life in himself;” (John 5:26 KJV)

Likewise scripture testifies the the Father is the source of His Holy Spirit:

“But when the Comforter is come, whom I will send unto you from the Father, even the Spirit of truth, which proceedeth from the Father, he shall testify of me:” (John 15:26 KJV)

So we see scripture’s clear teaching that the persons of the Son and Spirit have the person of the Father as Their source; thus the Father is unique among the persons of the Trinity as being personally the First Cause of all. And having the Father as Their own Cause and Source, the Son and Holy Spirit of God have no other nature than that of the only true God Whose Son and Spirit They are, eternally having the paternal divinity from the Father, the Son by His eternal generation, and the Holy Spirit as He eternally proceeds from the Father.

While we have shown that the Son and Holy Spirit have Their Source as the Father, the scriptures also clearly teach that the Father is alone without cause or source of any kind:

“O the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of God! how unsearchable are his judgments, and his ways past finding out! 34 For who hath known the mind of the Lord? or who hath been his counsellor? 35 Or who hath first given to him, and it shall be recompensed unto him again? 36 For of him, and through him, and to him, are all things: to whom be glory for ever. Amen.” (Romans 11:33-36 KJV)

“yet for us there is but one God, the Father, from whom are all things and we exist for Him; and one Lord, Jesus Christ, by whom are all things, and we exist through Him.” (1 Corinthians 8:6 NAS)

These verses demonstrate what is already clear. It is obvious and self-evident that God is uncaused and without source; for He Himself being the supreme cause of all cannot have a cause or source of His own. For as we have seen above, He is the Source of not only all creation, but also of His Son and Holy Spirit; He is then, the Source of all, as it says above “from Whom are all things”. For if the Father were originate and caused, He would be from something else; yet scripture declares that all things are from Him. He then, if He is the Cause of all, cannot Himself be caused, for if He Himself were caused and from another, then all things would not be caused by Him and be from Him, since He Himself would be caused by another. But all that is caused, and all that finds a source or origin can be traced back to the Father as its ultimate source, cause and origin; He then alone is the uncaused Cause of all, and unoriginate Origin of all.

This unique quality of the Father distinguishes Him from the other persons of the Trinity, and accounts for why scripture teaches that He in particular is “the only true God”, even though His Son and Spirit have the very same divine nature as He. It is not on the basis of His divinity that the Father in particular is the “one God”, for this divinity is shared by all three persons of the Trinity. Rather, it is because of the unique qualities the Father has of alone being the uncaused Cause of all, and of alone being the ‘Head without a head’, which we shall defer until the next post to discuss.

Now, we have seen proved from the scriptures that the person of the Father alone, Who is the only true God, is the uncaused Cause of all; not only of all creation, but we have also demonstrated from the scriptures that He is the Cause and Source of His only-begotten Son and Holy Spirit. We shall now conclude with testimonies witnessing to these truths from the ancient fathers of the church:

Eusebius of Caesarea

“Well then, rightly did the divine evangelist say that he was in the beginning, having attributed to him a source, that is to say, the begetting from the Father. For everything that is begotten from something has the one who has begotten him as source. And surely likewise he added, not “and the Word was in God,” but “and the Word was with God,” teaching that the one who was begotten, having also possessed the Father as source, is not somehow far from the Father, nor has been separated or moved to some great distance from him, but that he is present to him and exists together with him.” (On Ecclesiastical Theology, Book 2, Chapter 14)

“For the excellent and unique character of the ingenerate [that is, unbegotten or uncaused] and divine life of the Father, on account of which “he alone has immortality,” as was said by the holy Apostle, the Son alone could have, seeing as he was the image of the Father even in this respect. But he has the aforementioned life not like the Father, not without source nor ingenerate nor acquired by himself, but has received [this immortal life] from the Father. For thus he says, “For as the Father has life in himself, so also he has given the Son to have life in himself.” Therefore, the one has given, the other received.” (On Ecclesiastical Theology, Book 1, Chapter 20)

“But are you afraid, man, lest, having confessed that there are two hypostases, you introduce two sources and cast aside the monarchical divinity? Well then, learn that because there is one God who is without source and unbegotten, but the Son has been begotten from him, there will be one source and a single monarchy and kingship, since even the Son himself acknowledges his Father as source. “The head of Christ is God,” according to the Apostle. But are you anxious that one might have to accept that there are two gods if you confess that there are two hypostases of Father and Son? But know this too: that the man who grants that there are two hypostases of Father and Son is not compelled to say there are two Fathers, nor that there are two Sons, but will grant that one is the Father and the other is the Son. Thus, in the same way, it is not necessary for the man who posits two hypostases to grant that there are two gods. For we neither deem them equally worthy of honor, nor both without source and unbegotten, but deem the one [hypostasis] as unbegotten  and without source, while [we deem] the other as begotten and having the Father as his source. For this reason, even the Son himself teaches that his Father is also his God, when he says, “I go to my Father and to your Father and to my God and to your God.” Thus God is shown to be both Father and God of the Son himself.” (On Ecclesiastical Theology Book 2, Chapter 7)

Alexander of Alexandria

We have learnt that the Son is immutable and unchangeable, all-sufficient and perfect, like the Father, lacking only His “unbegotten.” He is the exact and precisely similar image of His Father. For it is clear that the image fully contains everything by which the greater likeness exists, as the Lord taught us when He said, ‘My Father is greater than I.’ And in accordance with this we believe that the Son always existed of the Father ; for he is the brightness of His glory, and the express image of His Father’s Person.’ But let no one be led by the word ‘always’ to imagine that the Son is unbegotten, as is thought by some who have their intellects blinded : for to say that He was, that He has always been, and, that before all ages, is not to say that He is unbegotten…

Therefore His own individual dignity must be reserved to the Father as the Unbegotten One, no one being called the cause of His existence : to the Son likewise must be given the honour which befits Him, there being to Him a generation from the Father which has no beginning ; we must render Him worship, as we have already said, only piously and religiously ascribing to Him the ‘was’ and the ‘ever,’ and the ‘before all ages ;’ not however rejecting His divinity, but ascribing to Him a perfect likeness in all things to His Father, while at the same time we ascribe to the Father alone His own proper glory of ‘the unbegotten,’ even as the Saviour Himself says, ‘My Father is greater than I.’ (Epistle of Alexander, Bishop of Alexandria, to Alexander, Bishop of Constantinople, from Theodoret’s, Ecclesiastical History, I.III – NPNF 3.39, 40.)

“Not that the Word is unbegotten, for the Father alone is unbegotten, but because the inexplicable subsistence of the only-begotten Son transcends the acute comprehension of the evangelists, and perhaps also of angels.” (Epistles on Arianism and the Deposition of Arius)

“Concerning whom we thus believe, even as the Apostolic Church believes. In one Father unbegotten, who has from no one the cause of His being, who is unchangeable and immutable, who is always the same, and admits of no increase or diminution; who gave to us the Law, the prophets, and the Gospels; who is Lord of the patriarchs and apostles, and all the saints. And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son of God; not begotten of things which are not, but of Him who is the Father; not in a corporeal manner, by excision or division as Sabellius and Valentinus thought, but in a certain inexplicable and unspeakable manner, according to the words of the prophet cited above: Who shall declare His generation? Isaiah 53:8 Since that His subsistence no nature which is begotten can investigate, even as the Father can be investigated by none; because that the nature of rational beings cannot receive the knowledge of His divine generation by the Father. But men who are moved by the Spirit of truth, have no need to learn these things from me, for in our ears are sounding the words before uttered by Christ on this very thing, No man knows the Father, save the Son; and no man knows who the Son is, save the Father. Matthew 11:27 That He is equally with the Father unchangeable and immutable, wanting in nothing, and the perfect Son, and like to the Father, we have learned; in this alone is He inferior to the Father, that He is not unbegotten. For He is the very exact image of the Father, and in nothing differing from Him. For it is clear that He is the image fully containing all things by which the greatest similitude is declared, as the Lord Himself has taught us, when He says, My Father is greater than I.” (Epistles on Arianism and the Deposition of Arius)

Athanasius

“We believe in one Unbegotten God, Father Almighty, maker of all things both visible and invisible, that hath His being from Himself. And in one Only-begotten Word, Wisdom, Son, begotten of the Father without beginning and eternally; word not pronounced nor mental, nor an effluence of the Perfect, nor a dividing of the impassible Essence, nor an issue; but absolutely perfect Son, living and powerful (Heb. iv. 12), the true Image of the Father, equal in honour and glory. ” (Statement of Faith)

“For the Son is in the Father, as it is allowed us to know, because the whole Being of the Son is proper to the Father’s essence, as radiance from light, and stream from fountain; so that whoso sees the Son, sees what is proper to the Father, and knows that the Son’s Being, because from the Father, is therefore in the Father. For the Father is in the Son, since the Son is what is from the Father and proper to Him, as in the radiance the sun, and in the word the thought, and in the stream the fountain: for whoso thus contemplates the Son, contemplates what is proper to the Father’s Essence, and knows that the Father is in the Son. For whereas the Form and Godhead of the Father is the Being of the Son, it follows that the Son is in the Father and the Father in the Son.” (Discourse 3, Against the Arians)

“1. The Word is God from God; for ‘the Word was God,’ and again, ‘Of whom are the Fathers, and of whom Christ, who is God over all, blessed for ever. Amen.’ And since Christ is God from God, and God’s Word, Wisdom, Son, and Power, therefore but One God is declared in the divine Scriptures. For the Word, being Son of the One God, is referred to Him of whom also He is; so that Father and Son are two, yet the Monad of the Godhead is indivisible and inseparable. And thus too we preserve One Beginning of Godhead and not two Beginnings, whence there is strictly a Monarchy. And of this very Beginning the Word is by nature Son, not as if another beginning, subsisting by Himself, nor having
come into being externally to that Beginning, lest from that diversity a Dyarchy and Polyarchy should ensue; but of the one Beginning He is own Son, own Wisdom, own Word, existing from It. For, according to John, ‘in’ that ‘Beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God,’ for the Beginning was God; and since He is from It, therefore also ‘the Word was God.’ And as there is one Beginning and therefore one God, so one is that Essence and Subsistence which indeed and truly and really is, and which said ‘I am that I am,’ and not two, that there be not two Beginnings; and from the One, a Son in nature and truth, is Its own Word, Its Wisdom, Its Power, and inseparable from It. And as there is not another essence, lest there be two Beginnings, so the Word which is from that One Essence has no dissolution, nor is a sound significative, but is an essential Word and essential Wisdom, which is the true Son. For were He not essential, God will be speaking into the air, and having a body, in nothing differently from men; but since He is not man, neither is His Word according to the infirmity of man. For as the Beginning is one Essence, so Its Word is one, essential, and subsisting, and Its Wisdom. For as He is God from God, and Wisdom from the Wise, and Word from the Rational, and Son from Father, so is He from Subsistence Subsistent, and from Essence Essential and Substantive, and Being from Being.” (Discourse 4, Against the Arians)

Hilary of Poitiers

“He will be safe in asserting the one substance if he has first said that the Father is unbegotten, that the Son is born, that He draws His personal subsistence from the Father, that He is like the Father in might, honour and nature, that He is subject to the Father as to the Author of His being…” (De Synodis)

“And if any one hearing this text, For as the Father has life in Himself so also He has given to the Son to have life in Himself John 5:26; denies that the Son is like the Father even in essence, though He testifies that it is even as He has said; let him be anathema. For it is plain that since the life which is understood to exist in the Father signifies substance, and the life of the Only-begotten which was begotten of the Father is also understood to mean substance or essence, He there signifies a likeness of essence to essence.

16. With the Son’s origin as thus stated is connected the perfect birth of the undivided nature. For what in each is life, that in each is signified by essence. And in the life which is begotten of life, i.e. in the essence which is born of essence, seeing that it is not born unlike (and that because life is of life), He keeps in Himself a nature wholly similar to His original, because there is no diversity in the likeness of the essence that is born and that begets, that is, of the life which is possessed and which has been given. For though God begot Him of Himself, in likeness to His own nature, He in whom is the unbegotten likeness did not relinquish the property of His natural substance.” (De Synodis)

“For the same reason we have of one substance, not to teach that there is one solitary divine Person, but that the Son is born of the substance of God and subsists from no other source, nor in any diversity caused by a difference of substance. Surely again this is our faith, that He subsists from no other source, and He is not unlike the Father. Is not the meaning here of the word ὁμοούσιον that the Son is produced of the Father’s nature, the essence of the Son having no other origin, and that both, therefore, have one unvarying essence? As the Son’s essence has no other origin, we may rightly believe that both are of one essence, since the Son could be born with no substance but that derived from the Father’s nature which was its source.” (De Synodis)

“We deny that there are two incapable of birth, because God is one through the prerogative of being incapable of birth” (De Synodis)

“XXVI. If any man says that the Son is incapable of birth and without beginning, speaking as though there were two incapable of birth and unborn and without beginning, and makes two Gods: let him be anathema. For the Head, which is the beginning of all things, is the Son; but the Head or beginning of Christ is God: for so to One who is without beginning and is the beginning of all things, we refer the whole world through Christ.

60. To declare the Son to be incapable of birth is the height of impiety. God would no longer be One: for the nature of the one Unborn God demands that we should confess that God is one. Since therefore God is one, there cannot be two incapable of birth: because God is one (although both the Father is God and the Son of God is God) for the very reason that incapability of birth is the only quality that can belong to one Person only. The Son is God for the very reason that He derives His birth from that essence which cannot be born. Therefore our holy faith rejects the idea that the Son is incapable of birth in order to predicate one God incapable of birth and consequently one God, and in order to embrace the Only-begotten nature, begotten from the unborn essence, in the one name of the Unborn God. For the Head of all things is the Son: but the Head of the Son is God. And to one God through this stepping-stone and by this confession all things are referred, since the whole world takes its beginning from Him to whom God Himself is the beginning.” (De Synodis, Quoting and commenting on the decision of the Council of Sirmium against Photinius)

Cyril of Jerusalem

“Of One Only Father there is One Only-begotten Son: neither two Unbegotten , nor two Only-begotten; but One Father, Unbegotten (for He is Unbegotten who has no father); and One Son, eternally begotten of the Father; begotten not in time, but before all ages; not increased by advancement, but begotten that which He now is.” (Catechetical Lecture 11)

“We believe then In the Only-Begotten Son of God, Who Was Begotten of the Father Very God. For the True God begets not a false god, as we have said, nor did He deliberate and afterwards beget ; but He begot eternally, and much more swiftly than our words or thoughts: for we speaking in time, consume time; but in the case of the Divine Power, the generation is timeless. And as I have often said, He did not bring forth the Son from non-existence into being, nor take the non-existent into sonship : but the Father, being Eternal, eternally and ineffably begot One Only Son, who has no brother. Nor are there two first principles; but the Father is the head of the Son 1 Corinthians 11:3; the beginning is One.” (Catechetical Lecture 11)

Novation of Rome

“And He is reasonably affirmed to be in the form of God, in that He Himself, being above all things, and having the divine power over every creature, is also God after the example of the Father. Yet He obtained, this from His own Father, that He should be both God of all and should be Lord, and be begotten and made known from Himself as God in the form of God the Father. He then, although He was in the form of God, thought it not robbery that He should be equal with God. For although He remembered that He was God from God the Father, He never either compared or associated Himself with God the Father, mindful that He was from His Father, and that He possessed that very thing that He is, because the Father had given it Him.” (On the Trinity, Chapter 22)

“Because it is essential that He who knows no beginning must go before Him who has a beginning; even as He is the less as knowing that He is in Him, having an origin because He is born, and of like nature with the Father in some measure by His nativity, although He has a beginning in that He is born, inasmuch as He is born of that Father who alone has no beginning. He, then, when the Father willed it, proceeded from the Father, and He who was in the Father came forth from the Father; and He who was in the Father because He was of the Father, was subsequently with the Father, because He came forth from the Father — that is to say, that divine substance whose name is the Word, whereby all things were made, and without whom nothing was made. For all things are after Him, because they are by Him. And reasonably, He is before all things, but after the Father, since all things were made by Him, and He proceeded from Him of whose will all things were made. Assuredly God proceeding from God, causing a person second to the Father as being the Son, but not taking from the Father that characteristic that He is one God. For if He had not been born — compared with Him who was unborn, an equality being manifested in both — He would make two unborn beings, and thus would make two Gods. If He had not been begotten — compared with Him who was not begotten, and as being found equal — they not being begotten, would have reasonably given two Gods, and thus Christ would have been the cause of two Gods. Had He been formed without beginning as the Father, and He Himself the beginning of all things as is the Father, this would have made two beginnings, and consequently would have shown to us two Gods also…  But now, whatever He is, He is not of Himself, because He is not unborn; but He is of the Father, because He is begotten, whether as being the Word, whether as being the Power, or as being the Wisdom, or as being the Light, or as being the Son; and whatever of these He is, in that He is not from any other source, as we have already said before, than from the Father, owing His origin to His Father, He could not make a disagreement in the divinity by the number of two Gods, since He gathered His beginning by being born of Him who is one God. In which kind, being both as well only-begotten as first-begotten of Him who has no beginning, He is the only one, of all things both Source and Head. And therefore He declared that God is one, in that He proved Him to be from no source nor beginning, but rather the beginning and source of all things.” (On the Trinity, Chapter 31)

Justin Martyr

“And now I shall again recite the words which I have spoken in proof of this point. When Scripture says, ‘The Lord rained fire from the Lord out of heaven,’ the prophetic word indicates that there were two in number: One upon the earth, who, it says, descended to behold the cry of Sodom; Another in heaven, who also is Lord of the Lord on earth, as He is Father and God; the cause of His power and of His being Lord and God.” (Dialogue With Trypho, Chapter 129)

“I shall give you another testimony, my friends, from the Scriptures, that God begot before all creatures a Beginning, [who was] a certain rational power [proceeding] from Himself, who is called by the Holy Spirit, now the Glory of the Lord, now the Son, again Wisdom, again an Angel, then God, and then Lord and Logos; and on another occasion He calls Himself Captain, when He appeared in human form to Joshua the son of Nave (Nun). For He can be called by all those names, since He ministers to the Father’s will, and since He was begotten of the Father by an act of will; just as we see happening among ourselves: for when we give out some word, we beget the word; yet not by abscission, so as to lessen the word [which remains] in us, when we give it out: and just as we see also happening in the case of a fire, which is not lessened when it has kindled [another], but remains the same; and that which has been kindled by it likewise appears to exist by itself, not diminishing that from which it was kindled. The Word of Wisdom, who is Himself this God begotten of the Father of all things, and Word, and Wisdom, and Power, and the Glory of the Begetter, will bear evidence to me, when He speaks by Solomon the following…” (Dialogue With Trypho, Chapter 61)

“For if you had understood what has been written by the prophets, you would not have denied that He was God, Son of the only, unbegotten, unutterable God.” (Dialogue With Trypho, Chapter 126)

Quote from Eusebius taken from: Eusebius Pamphilius, On Ecclesiastical Theology, trans. Kelly McCarthy Sproerl and Markus Vinzent (Washington, D.C.: The Catholic University of America Press, 2017).

Eusebius of Caesarea on the One God of the Christian Faith Being the Person of the Father in Particular

Eusebius of Caesarea is known as one of the great church historians, and is famous for his Church History, which is often credited both with introducing church history as its own field of study, as well as being invaluable in providing learned and detailed accounts of events, rich with quotations of primary sources.

Eusebius himself, although renowned as a historian and acknowledged as being very learned even by his detractors, has also gained a bad reputation coming down to our own time. This negative reputation usually consists of charges of supporting Arianism, or at least believing some shade of the heresy. Prior to the Nicene Council Eusebius seems to have openly supported Arius, although he did consent to the decision of the Nicene Council and the Creed they composed. Even after the Nicene Council, Eusebius opposed Athanasius of Alexandria and was still regarded as sympathetic to Arianism.

It is important to realistically acknowledge these shortcomings, these sins. Supporting the Arian party was terribly wrong and sinful, and it seems clear that during this period of his life Eusebius fell short of orthodox classical trinitarianism, as we see espoused by Athanasius of Alexandria and Cyril of Jerusalem.

There does, however, seem to be evidence that later in his life, Eusebius repented of this heresy, rejected Arianism, and embraced classical trinitarianism. That this is the case can be seen most clearly from his own words in On Ecclesiastical Theology, a dogmatic work Eusebius authored towards the end of his life, directed against modalism and seeking to give an exposition of trinitarian orthodoxy. In this work, we see teaching consistent with that of other orthodox fathers like Athanasius, and explicit and emphatic denials of the central tenets of Arianism, namely, that the Word was a creature, and that the Son was not co-eternal with the Father.

Instead Eusebius in On Ecclesiastical Theology gives a detailed treatment of trinitarianism, in general agreement with that taught by the orthodox fathers of the ante-nicene era, as well as those of his own nicene era. He teaches the divinity and eternality of the Son, and teaches against both the Arianism he had formerly lent his support to and the modalism that threatened the church of his day. This repentance on Eusebius’s part is cause for great joy; a man who was among the most prestigious church fathers of his day, who had formerly associated with Arianism, in the end rejected and refuted it, dealing a great blow to the Arian cause, and giving support to the cause of trinitarian orthodoxy. We must also care for him as an individual, and rejoice to see his repentance from such great sin.

Yet despite this, many throughout church history have soiled his reputation by constantly regarding him as an Arian, on the basis of his former sin. What false and perverse form of Christianity ignores the repentance of a sinner, and after they have turned from their sin and received forgiveness through Christ, still regards them as a sinner, I do not know. For all have sinned and fallen short of the glory of God; and while we were yet sinners, after our repentance the scriptures no longer call us sinners, but rather speak thus: “Or do you not know that the unrighteous will not inherit the kingdom of God? Do not be deceived; neither fornicators, nor idolaters, nor adulterers, nor effeminate, nor homosexuals, 10 nor thieves, nor the covetous, nor drunkards, nor revilers, nor swindlers, will inherit the kingdom of God. 11 Such were some of you; but you were washed, but you were sanctified, but you were justified in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ and in the Spirit of our God.” (1 Cor 6:9-11 NASB). Scripture does not then teach that all those who once sinned “will not inherit the kingdom of God”, but rather says to those who have repented “Such were some of you; but you were washed”.

And if anyone will object that this passage of scripture speaks of sins committed before baptism, let them remember King David, who is numbered among the saints, and not dishonorably, although he murdered a man and committed adultery with his wife. The same David, the scripture later speaks of as having repented: “I acknowledged my sin to You, And my iniquity I did not hide; I said, “I will confess my transgressions to the Lord”; And You forgave the guilt of my sin. Selah.” (Psalm 32:5 NASB)

Those then, who after having been regenerated, have sinned, and erred, even very grievously, when they have repented, and again been restored in the sight of God and men, ought not to be slandered for their former sins, as though they had not repented, and disowned their former sins.

But besides those who slander the man for the sins he repented of in respect to Arius, there are also those who hold him in low esteem for regarding images of Christ as unfitting; and for this reason many who want to discredit him have seized upon his former Arianism as a grounds to dismiss all that the man ever taught, as though what he taught after he repented ought not be received as the writings of any other orthodox church father.

And yet even his greatest detractors will make use of his Church History; for no one can fairly deny him to have been a capable scholar and historian. So much then, for the controversy that for over a millennia has surrounded the reputation of Eusebius.

Having put aside his former Arianism and embraced orthodoxy, Eusebius provides us with a useful treatment of trinitarianism in his On Ecclesiastical Theology, in which he clearly explains his belief, in agreement with that of the rest of the church, that the one God of the Christian faith is the person of the Father in particular:

“The children of the Jews first received the confession of the one God in opposition to the polytheistic error of the Greeks. But the saving grace of recognizing that the same [God] is also Father of an only-begotten Son has been given to the Church as a special privilege. For as Son it knows Jesus Christ alone and no other, not according to generation of the flesh that he assumed (for it has been taught to call this flesh the “form of a slave” and “Son of Man”), but according to his [generation] before all ages from God himself and the Father, [which is] unknowable to all. According to this [generation from God] the fullness of the paternal divinity also made him, the Son, God, and so as a result he possesses a divinity that is not his own, [not] one separated from that of the Father, nor one that is without source and that is unbegotten, nor one that is foreign, from somewhere else, and different from the Father’s. Rather, he is filled with divinity by participating in the paternal [divinity] itself, which pours into him as from a fountain. For the great Apostle taught that “in him alone dwells the fulness” of the paternal “divinity.” For this reason then, one God is proclaimed by the Church of God, “and there is no other beside him,” but also one only-begotten Son of God, the image of the paternal divinity, who, because of this, is God.” (On Ecclesiastical Theology, Book I, Ch 2)

“If the notion of proclaiming two gods makes them afraid, let them know that even when the Son is confessed by us to be God, the former [namely, the Father] would still be the one and only God, the only one without source and unbegotten, the one who possesses the divinity as his own, and who has become the cause of being in such a way for the Son himself.

Even the Son himself confesses that he lives because of [him], saying outright, “As the living Father sent me, and I live because of the Father,” and, “For as the Father has life in himself, so also he has given to the Son to have life in Himself.” For this reason, he also teaches that the Father is both our God and his God, when he says, “I go to my Father and to your Father and to my God and to your God.” The great Apostle teaches that God is the head of the Son and the Son is the head of the Church, in one place saying, “the head of Christ is God,” and in another asserting about the Son, “and he made him head over all things for the Church, which is his body.” Therefore, he himself would be the originator and head of the Church while the Father would also be his head. In this way the Father of the only-begotten Son is one God, and the head of even Christ himself is one. Since there is one source and head, how could there be two gods, and not one, that one alone, who acknowledges no higher being nor other cause than himself, who possesses the divinity of monarchial authority as his own, without source and unbegotten and who has given a share of his own divinity and life to the Son, who through him [the Son] has brought all things into existence, who sends him, who gives commands to him, who enjoins him, who teaches, who hands all things over to him, who glorifies him, who exalts him in the highest, who revealed him as king of the universe, who gives all judgement to him, who wishes that we also obey him, who encourages him to take up his throne at the right hand of his magnificence when he addresses him and says, “Sit at my right hand,” the one who, for all these reasons, also exists as God of the Son himself, in obedience to whom his only-begotten child “emptied himself, humbled himself, took on the form of a slave and became obedient unto death,” to whom he [the Son] also prayed, to whom he renders obedience when he [the Father] commands, to whom he also gives thanks, whom he also teaches us to consider “the only true God”, whom he confesses to be greater than himself, whom, in addition to all these features, he wishes us to know is also his God?” (On Ecclesiastical Theology, Book I, Ch 11)

“But the Church of God also acknowledges that the monad is indivisible, confessing one source, the one God who is unbegotten and without source, but also deems the only-begotten Son who is born from him, truly existing and living and subsisting, as Savior, although he is neither without source nor unbegotten (so as not to posit two sources and two gods), but begotten from the Father himself and having the one who has begotten him as source. For this reason, it has received the belief in one God the Father, who rules over all, and in Jesus Christ our Lord, the only-begotten Son of God, this holy and mystical faith providing regeneration in Christ to those who are enlightened through it… But God, being an indivisible monad, begot his only-begotten Son from himself, neither being divided nor undergoing alteration, change, flux, or any suffering.” (On Ecclesiastical Theology, Book 2, Ch 6)

“But are you afraid, man, lest, having confessed that there are two hypostases, you introduce two sources and cast aside the monarchical divinity? Well the, learn that because there is one God who is without source and unbegotten, but the Son has been begotten from him, there will be one source and a single monarchy and kingship, since even the Son himself acknowledges his Father as source. “The head of Christ is God,” according to the Apostle.” (On Ecclesiastical Theology, Book 2, Ch 7)

These quotes are provided from a newly published translation of the On Ecclesiastical Theology, released in last month in January of 2018. I recommend the work to anyone interested in reading further of his treatment on this same subject, or interested in Eusebius’s treatment of other subjects such as christology.

 

All patristic citations taken from:

Eusebius Pamphilius, On Ecclesiastical Theology, trans. Kelly McCarthy Sproerl and Markus Vinzent (Washington, D.C.: The Catholic University of America Press, 2017).